Approx. 122 pages, approx. 25 Figures, 21 Photographs, 9 tables, pdf-format, 2.7 Mbyte (specifics subject to change as updated versions are made)
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GaN based LEDs have started to replace incandescent light bulbs and fluorescent tubes bringing disruptive change to the global lighting industry. This change is motivated by energy savings and reduction of environmenally harmfull effects of current lighting technologies, enabled by technological discoveries and driven forward by politics and legislation. This report explains the fundamentals of the solid state lighting revolution, the impact on the lamp industry, the key LED markets and their trends, and analyses the players in tomorrow’s new lighting industry. This report is based on a presentation first given by the author on August 29, 1995 to US Senator Jeff Bingaman in Tokyo, and later at Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories in Palo Alto, at Princeton University and at other locations, to investment banks and fund managers.
Table of Contents:
- About the author of this report
- Executive summary
The solid state lighting revolution
- What drives the solid state lighting revolution
- Moore’s law for semiconductor electronics
- Tokyo’s market situation for lamps today, prices, lifetime, efficiency
Dramatic changes for today’s established lighting industry
- today’s lighting industry, the status quo: market segmentation, energy consumption, environmental impact (incl graphics and quantitative analysis)
- today’s lamp industry: key players and their market shares and their strategies
- the global energy bill for lighting
- operating costs, lighting efficiency, and ratios for LEDs, compact fluorescent lamps and kerosene lamps
- lighting efficiencies for the most important lamp technologies as a function of time (graphics: 1970 – 2020)
- luminous efficiencies for different light sources
General lighting, "Ban the bulb", political and government actions
- energy efficient lighting legislation
- developing countries
Physics and technology
Blue LEDs and lasers – key points
- Why are blue and white GaN LEDs important?
- Why are blue GaN lasers important?
- Who invented GaN blue LEDs and Lasers?
Physics and technology
- Light spectrum of an LED, a light bulb and a laser
- Blue lasers for optical storage
- What is a blue light emitting diode (LED)?
- What is a laser diode (LD)?
- Surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) vs edge emitting lasers
- What is a light amplifier?
- What is a resonant cavity?
- Why Gallium Nitride?
The three steps to commercial GaN devices
- Three key difficulties had to be solved
- Lattice mismatch
- High growth temperature
- P-type doping
- Some remaining issues
White GaN based LEDs
- the basics of white GaN LEDs for general lighting
- the three ways to make white GaN LEDs
- color composition of white LEDs
- color temperature
Long-lifetime GaN lasers
- Development of long-lifetime GaN lasers
- Schematic structure of Nakamuras blue laser
- Schematics of ELOG for defect control
Why did Shuji Nakamura at Nichia succeed where many much larger corporations failed?
- Management structure for Nakamuras work
- About Nichia Chemical Industries
- Nichia sales, profits and number of employees (data for 1983-2004)
Markets for GaN LEDs
- main application sectors for GaN LEDs
- traffic signals and specialty lighting
- street lighting
- displays and signage
- archhitectural lighting, interior design, shops and retail
- automotive applications, LED roadmap of a major Japanese car electronics maker, LED head lights and fog lamps
- mobile phones
- backlights for laptops, PCs, and TVs
- general lighting
Market for GaN Lasers
- Applications and markets for GaN lasers
- Blu-ray disc and HD-DVD
- "The Club of Five"
- Selected US Patents issued during 1993-1995
- overview of some licensing relationships in the "The Club of Five"
Emerging new lighting industry structure
- disruptive innovation for the lamp industry
- Not all incumbents have equally strong positions
- newcomers enter the lamp market
- business models change
- origins and structure
- Nichia’s recent new share allocation
- Nichia’s sales and profits (graphics for 1985 – 2010)
- Nichia’s number of employees (graphics for 1985 – 2010)
- the front line LED makers
- equipment makers and other supplies
- trends and projections